A PHP Error was encountered

Severity: Warning

Message: chmod() has been disabled for security reasons

Filename: drivers/Session_files_driver.php

Line Number: 191

Backtrace:

File: /home/brightchildren/public_html/application/controllers/BCSSadmin.php
Line: 8
Function: __construct

File: /home/brightchildren/public_html/index.php
Line: 315
Function: require_once

Bright Children Special School | Bright Children School | Bright Children School Madurai | Best Autism Special School Madurai | Autism Madurai | Autism School Madurai | Autism School In Madurai | Autism Special School In Madurai | Bright Children Special School Madurai | Bright Children School Madurai | Autism Special School Madurai | Autism Treatment in Madurai | Autism Therapy Centre Madurai | Autism School in Madurai | Autism Centre Madurai | Madurai Autism School | Best Autism School Madurai | Occupational Therapy Madurai | Occupational Therapy in Madurai | Madurai occupational Therapy | Madurai occupational Therapy Centre | Occupational Therapy Clinic in Madurai | OT in Madurai | OT Madurai | Madurai OT | Madurai Special School | Special School in Madurai | Best Special School Madurai | Best Special School in Madurai | Speech Therapy Madurai | Speech Therapy in Madurai | Speech Madurai | Madurai Speech Therapy | Madurai Speech Therapy Centre | Speech Therapy Clinic in Madurai | Speech Therapy Clinic Madurai | Special education Autism Madurai | Special Therapy for Autism in Madurai | ADHD Madurai | ADHD Treatment | Attention Deficient Treatment in Madurai | Speech and occupational Therapy in Madurai | Speech and occupational Centre in Madurai | Madurai Speech and occupational Therapy | Dorn Therapy Clinic in Madurai | Madurai Dorn Therapy | Dorn Therapy Madurai | Learning Disability Treatment in Madurai | Madurai Learning Disability Centre | Learning Disability Madurai | Madurai Therapy Center | Multi Therapy Madurai | Madurai Multi Therapy Centre | Intellectual Disability School Madurai | Madurai Intellectual disability School | Dyslexia Treatment Madurai | Madurai Dyslexia | Dyslexia Centre in Madurai | Acupuncture Treatment for Autism | Autism Acupuncture Treatment | Centre For Autism In Madurai | Centre For Autism In Tamil Nadu | Centre For Autism In India | Autism Awareness in Madurai | Autism Awareness in Tamil Nadu | Autism Awareness in India | Autism in Madurai | Autism in Tamil Nadu | Autism in India | Autism in Madurai | Autism in Tamil Nadu | Autism in India | Special Children | Special Child | Special Children's Education | Special Children's School | Special Children's School in Madurai | Special Children's School in Tamil Nadu | Special Children's School in India | Special Child Education | Special Child School | Special Child School in Madurai | Special Child School in Tamil Nadu | Special Child School in India | Autism In Madurai | Autism In India | Autism In TamilNadu | Autism Special School In Madurai | Autism Special School In TamilNadu | Autism Special In India | Autism Therapy In Madurai | Autism Therapy In TamilNadu | Autism Therapy In India | Occupational Therapy | Speech Therapy | Autism Special School | Special School For Autism | Specia School In Madurai | Special School In Tamil Nadu | Special School In India | Autism spectrum disorder | Aspergers symptoms | What causes autism | High functioning autism | Autism awareness | Autistic kids | Autism in adults | Early signs of autism | Signs of autism in babies | Autism symptoms in adults | Aspergers in adults | Autistic child | Autism in children | Signs of autism in toddlers | Autism treatment | Autism diagnosis | Is autism genetic | Vaccines and autism | Signs of autism in adults | Autism spectrum test | Signs of aspergers | Signs of autism in children | Autism cure | Autism in girls | Aspergers disease | Autism awareness month | Autistic behavior | Aspergers autism | Autistic traits | Autism in babies | Vaccines autism | Autism symptoms in children | Autism in toddlers | Characteristics of autism | Aspergers in children | Signs of autism in infants | Autism symptoms in toddlers | Autism facts | Autistic disorder | Autism therapy | Autism society | Autistic people | Asperger's disorder | Autistic doctor | Aspergers treatment | Mild autism symptoms | Autism spectrum disorder symptoms | High functioning autism symptoms | Aba autism | Social stories autism | Autism signs and symptoms | Autism research | Autism symptoms in babies | Can autism be cured | Aspergers symptoms in children | Is autism a disease | High functioning aspergers | Autism center | Spectrum disorder | Autism screening | Atypical autism | Signs of mild autism | Autism diet | History of autism | Autism checklist | Activities for autistic children | Autism assessment | Autistic boy | Is my child autistic | Autism resources | Autism support groups | Understanding autism | Autism spectrum disorder test | Aspergers diagnosis | Mmr vaccine and autism | Asd child | Occupational therapy for autism | Causes of autism spectrum disorder | Autism month | Autism and aspergers | Autism in infants | Autism articles | Autism help | Autism support | Autism spectrum symptoms | Mmr and autism | Mmr autism | Autism spectrum disorder treatment | Autism scale | Early intervention autism | Autistic parents | Autism journal | Helping children with autism | Autism organizations | Autism activities | Autism treatment center | First signs of autism | Social autism | What causes autism spectrum disorder | Behavioral therapy autism | Resources for autism | Autism foundation | Autism recovery | Signs of aspergers in children | Asd autism | Aba therapy for autism | Autism interventions | How is autism caused | Autistic children behavior | Autism spectrum condition | Autism communication | Parents of children with autism | Mild autism spectrum disorder | Mild aspergers symptoms | Activities for kids with autism | Symptoms of autism in infants | Autism websites | Autism information | Autism stories | Autism and diet | Autism speech | Autism support groups for parents | Autism features | About autism | Early symptoms of autism | Biomedical treatment for autism | Autism syndrome | Characteristics of autism spectrum disorder | Autism prognosis | Asperger syndrome treatments | Etiology of autism | Characteristics of a child with autism | Asd kids | Autism research centre | Childhood autism | Autism tools | Autism funding | Asd disorder | Autism clinic | Autism strategies | Incidence of autism | Signs of autism in kids | Autism disorder symptoms | Signs of autism spectrum disorder | Autism groups | Possible causes of autism | All about autism | Autism resources for parents | Aspergers help | Mild autism in children | Autism and speech | Autism and communication | Autism and asperger syndrome | Autism warning signs | Diagnosing autism in toddlers | Autism in young children | Autism help for parents | Mild autism treatment | Signs of autism in young children | Aspergers support | Treatment options for autism | Autism family support | Aspergers society | Resources for children with autism | Autism info | Social stories for children with autism | Autism information for parents | Children and autism | An autistic child | Childhood autism symptoms | MR School Madurai | Madurai MR School | Special Kids | Special Child | Special Children | Play Therapy For Special Needs | Specia School In Madurai | Special School In Tamil Nadu | Special School In India | Special Schools In Madurai | Special Schools In Tamil Nadu | Special Schools In India

Infantile Hemiplegia

What is Cerebral Palsy?

Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a group of disorders that affect muscle movement and coordination. In many cases, vision, hearing, and sensation are also affected.
The word "cerebral" means having to do with the brain. The word "palsy" means weakness or problems with body movement.
CP is the most common cause of motor disabilities in childhood. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it affects at least 1.5 to 4 out of every 1,000 children worldwide.

What are the symptoms of cerebral palsy?

The symptoms of CP vary from person-to-person and range from mild to severe. Some people with CP may have difficulty walking and sitting. Other people with CP can have trouble grasping objects.
The symptoms can become more severe or less severe over time. They also vary depending on the part of the brain that was affected.

Some of the more common signs include:
  • delays in reaching motor skill milestones, such as rolling over, sitting up alone, or crawling
  • variations in muscle tone, such as being too floppy or too stiff
  • delays in speech development and difficulty speaking
  • spasticity, or stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes
  • ataxia, or a lack of muscle coordination
  • tremors or involuntary movements
  • excessive drooling and problems with swallowing
  • difficulty walking
  • favoring one side of the body, such as reaching with one hand
  • neurological problems, such as seizures, intellectual disabilities, and blindness
Most children are born with CP, but they may not show signs of a disorder until months or years later. Symptoms usually appear before a child reaches age 3 or 4.
Call your doctor if you suspect your child has CP. Early diagnosis and treatment are very important.

What causes cerebral palsy?

Abnormal brain development or injury to the developing brain can cause CP. The damage affects the part of the brain that controls body movement, coordination, and posture.

The brain damage usually occurs before birth, but it can also happen during birth or the first years of life. In most cases, the exact cause of CP isn’t known. Some of the possible causes include:
  • asphyxia neonatorum, or a lack of oxygen to the brain during labor and delivery
  • gene mutations that result in abnormal brain development
  • severe jaundice in the infant
  • maternal infections, such German measles and herpes simplex
  • brain infections, such as encephalitis and meningitis
  • intracranial hemorrhage, or bleeding into the brain
  • head injuries as a result of a car accident, a fall, or child abuse

Who's at risk for cerebral palsy?

Certain factors put babies at an increased risk for CP. These include:
  • premature birth
  • low birth weight
  • being a twin or triplet
  • a low Apgar score, which is used to assess the physical health of babies at birth
  • breech birth, which occurs when your baby's buttocks or feet come out first
  • Rh incompatibility, which occurs when a mother's blood Rh type is incompatible with her baby's blood Rh type
  • maternal exposure to toxic substances, such as methylmercury, while pregnant

What are the different types of cerebral palsy?

There are different types of CP that affect various parts of the brain. Each type causes specific movement disorders. The types of CP are:

Spastic cerebral palsy

Spastic CP is the most common type of CP, affecting approximately 80 percent of people with CP. It causes stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes, making it difficult to walk.
Many people with spastic CP have walking abnormalities, such as crossing their knees or making scissorlike movements with their legs while walking. Muscle weakness and paralysismay also be present.
The symptoms can affect the entire body or just one side of the body.

Dyskinetic cerebral palsy

People with dyskinetic CP have trouble controlling their body movements. The disorder causes involuntary, abnormal movements in the arms, legs, and hands.
In some cases, the face and tongue are also affected. The movements can be slow and writhing or rapid and jerky. They can make it difficult for the affected person to walk, sit, swallow, or talk.

Hypotonic cerebral palsy

Hypotonic CP causes diminished muscle tone and overly relaxed muscles. The arms and legs move very easily and appear floppy, like a rag doll.
Babies with this type of CP have little control over their head and may have trouble breathing. As they grow older, they may struggle to sit up straight as a result of their weakened muscles. They can also have difficulty speaking, poor reflexes, and walking abnormalities.

Ataxic cerebral palsy

Ataxic CP is the least common type of CP. Ataxic CP is characterized by voluntary muscle movements that often appear disorganized, clumsy, or jerky.
People with this form of CP usually have problems with balance and coordination. They may have difficulty walking and performing fine motor functions, such as grasping objects and writing.

Mixed cerebral palsy

Some people have a combination of symptoms from the different types of CP. This is called mixed CP.
In most cases of mixed CP, people experience a mix of spastic and dyskinetic CP.

How is cerebral palsy classified?

Cerebral palsy is classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe developed the GMFCS as a universal standard for determining the physical capabilities of people with CP.
The system focuses on:
  • the ability to sit
  • the capability for movement and mobility
  • charting independence
  • the use of adaptive technology
The five levels of the GMFCS increase with decreasing mobility:

Level 1 cerebral palsy

Level 1 CP is characterized by being able to walk without limitations.

Level 2 cerebral palsy

A person with level 2 CP can walk long distances without limitations, but they can’t run or jump.
They may need assistive devices, such as leg and arm braces, when first learning to walk. They also may need to use a wheelchair to get around outside of their home.

Level 3 cerebral palsy

A person with level 3 CP can sit with little support and stand without any support.
They need handheld assistive devices, such as a walker or cane, while walking indoors. They also need a wheelchair to get around outside of the home.

Level 4 cerebral palsy

A person with level 4 CP can walk with the use of assistive devices.
They’re able to move independently in a wheelchair, and they need some support when they’re sitting.

Level 5 cerebral palsy

A person with level 5 CP needs support to maintain their head and neck position.
They need support to sit and stand, and they may be able to control a motorized wheelchair.

How is cerebral palsy diagnosed?

A doctor will diagnose CP by taking a complete medical history, performing a physical exam that includes a detailed neurological exam, and evaluating the symptoms. Additional testing can also be performed:
  • An electroencephalogram (EEG) is used to evaluate the electrical activity in the brain. It may be ordered when someone is showing signs of epilepsy, which causes seizures.
  • An MRI scan uses powerful magnets and radio waves to produce detailed images of the brain. It can identify any abnormalities or injuries in the brain.
  • A CT scan creates clear, cross-sectional images of the brain. It can also reveal any brain damage.
  • A cranial ultrasound is a relatively quick and inexpensive method of using high-frequency sound waves to get basic images of the brain in young infants.
  • A sample of blood may be taken and tested to rule out other possible conditions, such as bleeding disorders.
  • vision loss and impairment, such as blurred vision in one or both eyes
  • deafness
  • speech delays
  • intellectual disabilities
  • movement disorders

What other conditions are associated with cerebral palsy?

People with CP may have other problems, such as:
  • communication difficulties, including speech and language disorders
  • drooling
  • spinal deformity such as scoliosis (curvature), lordosis (saddle back) and kyphosis(humpback)
  • osteoarthritis
  • contractures, which occur when the muscles get locked in painful positions
  • incontinence
  • osteopenia, or poor bone density that can make bones easily breakable
  • dental problems

How is cerebral palsy treated?

The goal of treatment is to improve limitations and prevent complications. Treatment may include assistive aids, and medications

Assistive aids

Assistive aids include:
  • eyeglasses
  • hearing aids
  • walking aids
  • body braces
  • wheelchairs

Medications

Oral anticonvulsants and muscle relaxants are commonly used as first-line treatments for CP. Your doctor might prescribe:
  • diazepam (Valium)
  • dantrolene (Dantrium)
  • baclofen
  • tizanidine (Zanaflex)
Your doctor might also suggest local injections of botulinum toxin type A (Botox) or intrathecal baclofen therapy, where the drug is delivered by an implantable pump.

Other treatment

Other types of treatment for CP include:
  • speech therapy
  • physical therapy
  • occupational therapy
  • recreational therapy
  • counseling or psychotherapy
  • social services consultations
Although stem cell therapy is being explored as a potential treatment for CP, research is still in the early stages.

How can cerebral palsy be prevented?

The majority of problems that cause CP can't always be prevented. However, if you're pregnantor planning on becoming pregnant, you can take certain preventive measures to minimize complications.
It's important to get vaccinated against diseases that can cause fetal brain damage, such as rubella. It's also crucial to receive adequate prenatal care. Attending regular appointments with your doctor during pregnancy can help prevent premature birth, low birth weight, and infections.

What's the long-term outlook for people with cerebral palsy?

There's no cure for CP, but the condition can often be treated and managed effectively. The specific type of treatment varies from person to person. Some people with CP may not need very much assistance, and others might need extensive, long-term care for their symptoms.

Regardless of the severity of the condition, treatment can improve the lives of those with CP. The following can help many people enhance their motor skills and ability to communicate:
  • assistive aids
  • medications
  • therapy
We proudly Thanks to m/s: healthline.com
To give this useful articles to know about the Down's Syndrome